The Ancient City of Gaochang
In 1961, the Ancient City of Gaochang was publicized as one of the key national cultural relics protection unit by the State Council. The Ancient City of Gaochang lies at the foot of the Flaming Mountain 40 kilometers southeast of the Turpan County seat, which has been a must passageway for communication between the East and West since the Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty, and an important section of the ancient Silk Road. The Ancient City of Gaochang consists of the outer city, the inner city and the palace city. The walls of city are well preserved. The outer city is in a shape of rectangle with perimeter of about 5 kilometers, occupying an area of 2 million square meters. The walls were built by ramming and the foundation is 11.5 meters high and 12 meters wide. There are outstanding battlements on the outside of the city walls---"Mamian" structure. The west city has two gates, from one of which, the small town outside the city gate can still be seen. The southeast and southern part of the outer city is the temple area. The bigger temple area lies on the southwest part of the city. The original of the ruins are the gate of temple, yard, main hall, pagoda basement of storied niche, and some remaining mural and figures of Buddha can still be vaguely seen in the niches. Some ruins of "workshop" and "fair" still exist in the southeast and northeast outsider the ancient city, perhaps the workshops ruin of small handcraft industry.