Terracotta Warriors Pot No. 1
At the entrance of the museum, you face a huge modern structure right ahead. It is the Pit No. 1. With 14,260 square meters (3.52 acres), it is the largest of the three pits.
Everyone will be awed by the magnificent and fantastic scene when walks in the Pit No.1. In fact it is the largest burial pits and is estimated to unearth over 6000 Qin terracotta soldiers and 40 woody chariots, most of which are infantrymen.
The China's ancient royal soldiers seem standing into the battle formation, poised to fight, an alertness in their faces and stance, each figure different in some detail; some have slight paunches, others are slender:
Pit No.1 is in an oblong shape, 230 metres long from east to west, 62 metres wide from north to south and 5 metres deep, covering an area of 114,260 square metres. It is an earth-and-wood structure in the shape of tunnel. The terra-cotta warriors and horses in Pit No.1 are arrayed in a practical battle formation. In the long corridor to the east end of the pit stand facing east three rows of terra-cotta warriors in battle tunics and puttees, 70 in each, totaling 210 altogether. Armed with bows and arrows, they constitute the vanguard. There is one row of warriors in the south, north and west of the corridor respectively, facing outward. They are probably the flanks and the rear guard. Holding crossbows and arrows and other long-distance shooting weapons, they took up the job of defending the whole battle formation. The ten rammed partition walls divided Pit No.1 into eleven latiriors with horse-drawn chariots in the center. The warriors, armor-clad, holding long-shaft weapons are probably the main body of the formation and represent the principal force. There are altogether 27 trial trenches. According to estimation, there will be 6,000 warriors and horses in Pit No.1, most of which are infantrymen
In the long corridor to the east end of the pit stand, facing east, three rows of terracotta warriors in battle tunics and puttees, 70 in each, totaling 210 altogether. Armed with bows and arrows, they constitute the vanguard. Other warriors, armor-clad, holding long-shaft weapons are probably the main body of the formation and
represent the principal force. There is one row of warriors in the south, north and west of the corridor respectively, facing outward. They are probably the flanks and the rear guard. Holding crossbows and arrows and other long-distance shooting weapons, they appear to be defending the whole battle formation.
The warriors are displayed in the trench in which they would found, which is about five meters below ground level in the exhibition hall. There stand thousands of life-size warriors in bronze color with heights from 1.8 to 1.97 meters. They look very brave, solemn, and strong. Along with the warriors are 32 life-size pottery horses which are divided into 8 groups.
If you are a reader of the Chinese classic Bing-fa (The Art of War) written by Sun Tzu (personal name Sun Wu), you would appreciate their battle orders as they march into war.
The war formation in Pit No.1 is elaborately set in a line and is posed so to seem prepared for battle at any moment. Every soldier and horse warrior is life-like, recapturing the formidable array of Emperor Qin Shi Huang. One can only marvel at the grand artistic ability of the remote Qin Dynasty.
During the excavation, in addition to the terracotta warriors and horses, archeologists discovered a variety of different weaponry including bronze swords, spears, crossbows, arrows and Wugou. Wugou is a type of sword produced in the State of Wu under the order of King Helu. The edge of the Wugou is curved and sharp. This feature distinguishes it from the other weaponry found in the pit.
According to the records, the construction of the terracotta warrior pits began in 221BC when China was united. During the peasant uprisings in 209BC, construction halted and at the end of the Qin Dynasty, Xiang Yu set fire to the pit, which caused the pit to collapse and many terracotta warriors and horses were destroyed.
Armored warriors were found in both Pit 1 and Pit 3 of terracotta warrior museum located in Lin Tong near to Xi'an city. They are a main battling infantry force and guards wearing heavy armor to protect their shoulders and torsos. Some of them wear caps. Armored warriors are mainly distributed in the middle of the formation in various battle positions. They also serve as the guarding force of the battle field command. It is standing with armor, some of them without a hat on, wearing soft hat, pitching rattan-march on leg. Behind head, coiling them hair in sixth width braids. All of them are wearing a solemn and respectful amour.
A small door at the northwest corner opens into Pit No. 3.