Terracotta Army Pit No.2
No. 2 Pit, found in 1976, is 20 meters northeast of No. 1 Pit.. As the highlight of the whole mausoleum, it uncovers the mystery of the ancient army array. It consists of four units, measuring 94 meters east to west and 84 meters south to north and 5 meters deep., forming a 6000 sq. meter built-up area. The first unit contains rows of kneeling and standing archers; the second one is a chariot war array; the third unit consists of mixed forces with infantry, chariot and trooper standing in rectangular array; and the last one includes numerous troopers holding weapons. The four units form a rigor battle array.
The Terra Cotta Pit No. 2 is 20 meters due east of Pit No. 1. It is 6,000 square meters subdivided into L-Shaped foursquare sections, where archeologists unearthed 1,000 warriors, 500 horses, and 89 wooden chariots. The horses are both for pulling chariots and for carrying riders. It reflects a vibrant and dynamic atmosphere.
First Section: First group, 334 archers, is lined up in eight clusters. They are armed with crossbows. Some 160, clad in heavy protective armor, are in the front line kneeling position, and others stand behind to shoot over their heads.
Second Section: Second group, 64 chariots, is also in eight clusters. Each chariot is officered by an archer, supported by a soldier on either side, and reinforced by another infantryman in the flank. It is an improvement on chariot tactics.
Third Section: At the center of Pit No. 2, the third section has 19 war chariots and around 100 warriors. They are three clusters: the right, the left, and the rear. Each has chariots up at front. Messengers and archers hurry about on their business.
Fourth Section: The fourth section is due north. There are three clusters, consisting of six chariots, 124 vaulting horses and men. Each chariot carries two: the charioteer and his scout. The cavalryman looks ferocious, and holds a bow in his hand. The wooden chariots have rotten away with age, but they leave clear unmistakable marks on the floor.
The four sections may each engage the enemy singly or as a combined unit.
The most important section is at the eastern end of the pit with 60 archers surround the main force in standing position. The main force in the middle is comprised of 160 kneeling or squatting archers. Archers is a special arms of services for the terracotta figures. Figures engaged in this service armed with bow and arrow and arrayed together. One valuable point in the sculpture art is the fine stitches in the sole of the shoes by the craftsmen, reflecting a strict spirit of realism and giving posterity viewers a strong sense of life. It convinced that tell us how the standing archers and kneeling archers coordinated with each other when the enemies attack.
It is one kind of the infantryman dressed in an unarmored battle robe. It was unearthed from the exterior of the archer formation in Pit 2. The pose of both hands shows that this figure was ready to shoot. Altogether 172 standing archers were found in this pit.At first glance, you would certainly think that the man in the photo is unlike a warrior by reason of he is not wearing a suit of armor. But I can't help telling you that he did not wear armor in order to adjust tactics quickly, because as an infantry he have to frequently change the posture between standing and kneeling shooting.
It is one kind of the armored infantryman. It was unearthed from the center of the archer formation, which is located northeast of pit 2. The pose of both hands evidences that this figure held one crossbow originally. Altogether 160 kneeling archers were found in Pit2.
The bronze swords unearthed in Pit 2 measure 86cm (34 inches) long and are carved with eight symmetrical facets. Buried for over 2,000 years, they are still very sharp and smooth. What's more surprising is that the pliability of these bronze swords is extraordinarily good. One of the swords was found bent with a 331 pound terracotta warrior on top of it. When the heavy warrior figure was removed, the sword slowly returned to its original shape.
The swords were analyzed by scientists using modern methods. They concluded that the surfaces of these Qin swords were coated with an oxide film 10 microns thick which contained 2% chrome. This is especially noteworthy since the chrome oxidation technology wasn't actually mastered until recent times and requires both complex equipment and processes. How did the Qin people do it more than 2,000 years ago? It's a pity that their secret recipe was not been passed down to today. We can only marvel at the extraordinary casting technique and artistic standards during that period, and at the same time do our best to unveil the mystery.