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Yangtze River
 
 
I INTRODUCATION 简介
 
Yangtze or Chang Jiang, river in China, the longest river of Asia and the third longest river in the world. The Yangtze flows a total distance of 6,300 km (3,900 mi), from the Tibetan Plateau in the west to the East China Sea in the east, forming China’s principal navigable waterway and a natural boundary between what is traditionally considered northern and southern China.
 
中国的长江是亚洲最长的河流,在世界上是第三大长河。长江总长6300千米,从西藏高原的西部到中国东部的出海口。形成了中国主要航道,传统上认为是中国南方和北方的分界线
 
The Yangtze has immense economic importance in China. It provides irrigation water for agriculture, a source of hydroelectric power, a waterway for cargo vessels, scenic points of interest for tourism, and a great transportation network through the heart of some of the most densely populated and economically important areas in China. Shanghai, China’s most important port, commands the entrance to the Yangtze Basin, which drains an area of 1,940,000 sq km (750,000 sq mi) and contributes nearly half of China’s crop production. Some of China’s most important industrial centers are located on the Yangtze, including Wuhan and Chongqing. Many dams have been constructed in the Yangtze Basin. In 1994 construction began on the Three Gorges Dam, which will rank as the world’s largest hydroelectric dam when it is completed in 2009.
 
 
长江在中国有着巨大的经济意义,它为农业提供了灌溉水源,是水利发电的动力,是货物船只的水路,是旅游的著名景点,而且也是中国一些人口最稠密的地区经济领域的一个重要的交通大网络。上海,中国最重要的港口,属于长江盆地的入口处,灌溉面积大约为1940000平方千米,为大半个中国的庄稼提供了灌溉水源。  许多中国最重要的工业中心都位于长江边上。包括武汉和重庆,长江盆地已经构建了许多水坝。1994年,开始建造三峡大坝,完工于2009年,这是世界山最大的发电水坝。
 
The Yangtze Basin has a seasonal semitropical climate everywhere except in the mountains of the Tibetan Plateau, where the river’s headwaters originate. Although glacier melt forms the headwaters, rain provides most of the Yangtze’s water volume. The monsoon season brings heavy rains between March and August in the river’s lower and middle courses, and from May to September in its upper course. Both floods and droughts are common in the basin. Floods generally occur every two or three years. Floods in the monsoon season are associated with heavy rainfall in the upper basin, tropical cyclones, and increased water flow from large tributaries such as the Han. In addition to large floods, the Yangtze suffers a number of environmental problems, including slope erosion, sedimentation, and industrial and organic pollution from large cities.
 
长江流域是一个季节性的亚热带气候,它的源头是来自西藏高原的山脉地区。它的源头是冰川的融化,雨水为长江提供了较大的水量,每年的3月至8月是雨水较为充沛的季节。五月至九月是其中上游,洪水和干旱在这个盆地常见,洪水一般发生每两年或三年。在季风季节洪水是联合了上游流域,热带气旋暴雨,并增加如韩、大支流的水流量。了大洪水,长江遭受包括坡面侵蚀,沉积环境问题,并有来自从大城市工业的有机污染。
In China the Yangtze is known as the Chang Jiang (Long River). It has many local names as well. In the high mountains of the Tibetan Plateau, it is called the Tongtian He (River to Heaven). Upstream from Yibin, it is known as the Jinsha Jiang (Golden Sand River). The river came to be known by Europeans as the Yangtze (also spelled Yangzi), probably after a local name for the river in its lower course.
 
在中国长江也称为长江,她也有很多很地道的名字,源头在西藏高原的高山上,她被称为通天河(通往天堂的河流)。在宜宾上游,以著名的金沙江出名。这条河后来被欧洲人成为长江(也被成为扬子江),可能是下游当地的一个名称。
 
II COURSE OF THE YANGTZE   长江的源头
 
The Yangtze flows through nine provinces and forms the eastern border of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR). The course of the Yangtze is traditionally divided into three sections. The mountainous Upper Yangtze is the course from the headwaters in western Qinghai Province to the city of Yichang inHubei Province . The Middle Yangtze flows through a flat plain from Yichang to Hukou in Jiangxi Province . The Lower Yangtze stretches from Hukou to the East China Sea.
 
长江从西藏高原的东部边界开始流经9个省份,最终汇入大海。长江在传统上分为三部分,长江上游从青海省西部到湖北省宜昌市;中游从宜昌市到江西湖口平原;下游到湖口到中国的东海。
 
A Upper Yangtze 长江上游
The Yangtze originates in the mountains of southwestern Qinghai Province, located in the northern Tibetan Plateau. The river has three headwaters, the highest of which descends from an elevation of more than 6,600 m (21,600 ft). Their combined waters form the Tuotuo River, which flows eastward, is joined by the Dam Qu, and becomes the Tongtian. The Tongtian descends sharply from the high plateau. Downstream, where it is known as the Jinsha, the river flows through deep gorges southward, paralleling the narrow valleys of the Mekong and the Salween rivers to the west, and forming the border between the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) and Sichuan Province. Farther south, at Shigu in Yunnan Province, it reverses course to flow northward, then at the border of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, again reverses course to flow southward. After this zigzag in its course, the river flows generally northeast.
 
长江发源于青海省西南部的高山上,位于西藏高原的北部。长江由三条源头交汇而成,它从最高处到最低有6600米(约为21600英尺)。上游的沱沱河和通天河(从囊极巴陇至巴塘河口),河流流行于第一阶梯——青藏高原腹地内。因在高原顶部,河谷开阔,河槽宽浅,一般河宽300~1700米,河道蜿蜒曲折,水流缓慢散乱,汊流很多。从巴塘河口到宜宾称金沙江,是第一至第二阶梯的过渡地段,这里地形突变,山高谷深,除局部河段为宽谷外,河流穿行于峡谷之中,比降大,河水湍急。到云南石鼓以下,突然转向东北流,著名的虎跳峡就在石鼓以下35千米的地方。峡长16千米,最窄处仅30米。出虎跳峡后、穿越云贵高原北部,到四川省新市镇以下进入第二级阶梯,在宜宾附近汇集了岷江之后,才称长江。
 
In this section of its course, the Yangtze flows through deep gorges, becoming turbulent and dangerous. Near the city of Lijiang in Yunnan Province, the river reaches a depth of nearly 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in the Hutiao Xia (Tiger Leaping Gorge). The Yangtze then flows into southern Sichuan Province, where it receives the waters of the Yalong. After marking the boundary between Yunnan and Sichuan provinces for about 800 km (about 500 mi), the Yangtze enters the Sichuan Basin where it is joined by three major tributaries—the Min, Jialing, and Wu—and becomes known as the Chang Jiang. The city of Chongqing is located at its confluence with the Jialing.
 
在它的源头的该段,长江流过很深的峡谷,动荡危险。距离云南省丽江市很近。河流大约距虎跳峡有4000米长,长江流经四川省,亚龙湾的水也汇入了长江,云南和四川中间的大约有800千米长,长江在进入四川盆地是三江合一的,闽江、嘉陵江和乌江,并合为长江,重庆的位置就受嘉陵江的影响。
 
Beyond Chongqing, the Yangtze flows northeast through a mountainous area up toWan Xian , where it turns east to drop steeply through three gorges. The first and the narrowest gorge, Qutang Xia, is 8 km (5 mi) long. The middle gorge, Wu Xia, is 40 km (25 mi) long and bounded by high cliffs. The last gorge, Xiling Xia, is the longest at 75 km (46 mi). The gorges, known collectively as San Xia (Three Gorges), are considered one of the most scenic stretches of the river. However, the Three Gorges Dam under construction near the city of Yichang is expected to significantly alter the appearance of the gorges. The reservoir created by the dam will inundate many settlements and river features in the gorges. Three Gorges(hongqing to Yichang)
 
除了重庆,东北,长江流量通过了托万山区西安,东到原来的地方,通过三峡急剧下降。第一和最窄的峡谷,瞿塘峡,是8公里(5英里)长。中间的峡谷,吴霞,是40公里(25英里)长和高的悬崖之间。最后一个峡谷,西陵峡,是在75公里(46英里)长。该峡谷,统称为三夏(三峡),被认为是河的风景最优美的一个延伸。然而,三峡大坝附近的宜昌根据城市建设,预计大大改变了峡谷的外观。由大坝将淹没许多创造定居点和在峡谷河流功能的水库。
 
 
Qutang Gorge Map 瞿塘峡地图
 
 
Wu Gorge Map
Xiling Gorge Map
 
B Middle Yangtze   长江中游
Near Yichang, still about 2,000 km (1,250 mi) from its mouth, the Yangtze drops to an elevation of only 40 m (130 ft). The river then flows at a width of up to 2 km (up to 1.2 mi) and an average depth of between 6 and 15 m (20 and 50 ft) through a large plain with many lakes. This area is prone to severe flooding and accumulation of river sediment (silt). In full summer flood, many of the lakes merge with the river. Dongting Hu and Poyang Hu, which are connected to the Yangtze, are the biggest lakes in China. They historically helped alleviate flooding by receiving overflow of the Yangtze. However, sediment from the river as well as farming and urban encroachments have reduced the water capacity of the lakes. Sedimentation and flooding also pose problems for local farmers and the area’s major cities of Jingzhou, Wuhan, and Jiujiang. Wuhan is a major port situated at the confluence of the Han and Yangtze rivers.
 
长江出三峡从宜昌以下,进入第三级阶梯的长江中下游平原,江面展宽,水流缓慢,河道弯曲。长927千米,占长江长度14.7%。流域面积67.9万平方千米,占流域面积37.6%。其中,从湖北的枝城到湖南城陵矶一段,长约420千米,因古代为荆州地区,所以取名为荆江。荆江又分长为上荆江(枝城至藕池口)和下荆江(藕池口至城陵矶)两段。下荆江河弯发育,素有“九曲回肠”之称。中游两岸湖泊众多,江湖相通,构成庞大的洞庭湖和鄱阳湖两大水系。长江接纳两大水系以及直接入江的支流来水后,水量猛增一倍以上。湖口以下进入下游段。
ntroduction; Course of the Yangtze; Economic Significance; History
 
介绍:长江的源头、经济意义和历
 
C Lower Yangtze 长江下游
From the city of Hukou, located on the Yangtze where it meets the connection from Poyang Hu, the river flows on a gentle downward slope, first through plains and hills and then through a coastal wetland with numerous shallow lakes. It also passes through or near a number of large cities:Anqing ,Nanjing  (near the Yangtze"s tidal limit), Zhenjiang(near which the Grand Canal crosses the Yangtze), and lastly Shanghai, which is located on the Huangpu River, a tributary, about 23 km (about 14 mi) south of the Yangtze.
 
水深江宽,从湖口到入海口,长844千米,占长江长度13.3%。流域面积12.3万平方千米,占流域面积的6.8%。江苏省扬州、镇江一带的长江干流又称扬子江。得名于这一带古代有扬子津和扬子县,现在外国人常用扬子江这一名称泛指整个长江。在大通以下受潮汐影响,进入长江口的平均潮流量达26.6万立方米/秒,是长江多年平均入海流量的8.8倍。在一般情况下,一次进潮总量约为32.5亿立方米,大潮时可达45亿立方米。由于海水倒灌,使江水流速减缓,所携带的泥沙便在下游河段,尤其是靠近河口段沉积下来,因此,在江心形成了数十个大小不一的沙洲,其中最大的是崇明岛。
 
Near its mouth on the East China Sea, the Yangtze becomes relatively shallow and wide, stretching 15 km (9 mi) across where it meets the sea. The large delta of the Yangtze is subject to tidal fluctuations and contains many islands. The largest island, Chongming, is 100 km (60 mi) long.
 
接近东海口,长江逐渐的相对来说变得浅而宽,当汇合大海的时候,延伸了15千米,长江三角洲是受大潮汐波动,并包含许多岛屿。最大的岛,崇明岛有100公里长。
 
III ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE 经济意义
 
The Yangtze Basin has functioned as the economic heartland of China since the Tang dynasty (ad 618 to 907).
 
从唐时期开始长江流域是中国在经济方面起到了重要的作用。
 
A Agriculture and Industry
农业和工业
 
Today about 400 million people, or about one-third of the population of China, live in the Yangtze Basin. Many are engaged in agriculture. The basin contributes nearly half of China’s crop production, although only one-quarter of the basin is arable. The most fertile areas for farming are the Sichuan Basin, the plains between the Yangtze and its tributary the Han, and the plains of the lower basin. In all about 40 percent of the cereals, more than 30 percent of the cotton, nearly half of the freshwater fish, and 40 percent of the industrial production of China come from the Yangtze Basin.
 
今天,大约有4亿中国的人口或是中国三分之一的人口居住在长江流域,许多都是从事农业的。长江流域的作物产量大约为全中国的一半,尽管只有站全国耕地的三分之一,最肥沃的农业耕地分布在四川盆地、长江极其支流的汉江平原, 盆地和下游平原。再所有40%的谷物中,30%以上的都是棉花,将近一半的淡水鱼,一级中国工业生产的40%都是来自长江流域。
 
Food crops grown in the basin include rice, wheat, corn (maize), barley, sweet potatoes, and legumes. The rapid extension of irrigation since 1949 has led to increased double cropping of rice in the region and a rise in production. The most important industrial crop is cotton.
 
该盆地上种有:水稻种植,小麦,玉米(玉米),大麦,甘薯和豆类。自1949年以来灌溉的速度已增加一倍,导致该地区种植的大米,在产量上迅速上升。最重要的经济作物是棉花。
 
The Yangtze Basin has deposits of most minerals required by industry, particularly coal, iron, copper, antimony, manganese, tungsten, and tin. Natural gas and oil are found in Sichuan Province. Since 1949 the treaty port cities have been transformed from centers for the collection of raw materials for export through Shanghai into industrial centers. Shanghai and Nanjing have become the nuclei of a metropolitan area producing textiles, ships, iron and steel, and fertilizers. Wuhan is a major metallurgical center. In the province of Sichuan, an industrialized area has developed around Chongqing and Chengdu , producing cement, fertilizers, and iron and steel products.
 
长江流域有各行业所需的大部分矿物质,尤其是煤,铁,铜,锑,锰,钨,锡矿床。在四川发现有天然气和石油。自1949年以来的通商口岸城市已被改造成由中心通过上海工业中心为原料的出口集合。上海,南京已成为一个大都市区纺织品生产核,船舶,钢铁和化肥。武汉是一个重要的冶金中心。在四川,全省的工业化地区围绕重庆,成都,生产水泥,化肥和钢铁产品。
 
B Transportation and Tourism 交通和旅游
 
For thousands of years, the Yangtze has been the main transport artery for people and freight moving between Sichuan Province and China’s eastern coast. The Grand Canal of eastern China, constructed in stages beginning in the 5th century bc, connected northern China and areas of southern China to the Yangtze system. The Grand Canal was vital for transporting grain.
 
几千年来,长江一直是人们与四川省和中国东部沿海货运的主要运输动脉移动。中国东部大运河,在公元前5世纪初开始建造,连接中国北部和中国南部地区。大运河是至关重要的运送粮食。
 
Today the Yangtze continues to be an extremely important inland waterway for commerce and industry. Oceangoing vessels can reach as far inland as Wuhan, and large cargo and passenger boats can reach Chongqing. Small boats travel farther upriver to Xinshezhen, about 3,000 km (about 1,860 mi) from the sea. The traditional boats called junks , less economical than steamboats, are now rarely seen on the river.
 
今天,长江仍然是一个极其重要的商业和工业内陆水道。远洋船只可以达到远内陆武汉,和大型货物和乘客的船只可以直达重庆。小船旅行到更远的上游,约3000公里的海(约1,860英里)。传统的船称为帆船,轮船不经济,现在很少看到河上。
 
However, the development of railways has reduced transportation along the Yangtze. Before 1949 railroads running north-south were interrupted by the river. Goods and passengers had to cross by ferry. Several railroad bridges have been built since then. The two oldest bridges, crossing at Wuhan and Nanjing, were completed in 1956 and 1968, respectively. Other railroad bridges are located at Chongqing and near Kunming. In the 1970s a rail line was constructed parallel to the river from Wuhan to Chongqing.
 
但是,铁路的发展,减少沿长江运输。 1949年以前,铁路从北至南分别在河边中断。货物和乘客的渡轮已跨越。铁路桥梁的几个自那时以来已建成。这两个最古老的桥梁,在武汉和南京穿越,完成了1956年和1968年分别。其他铁路桥位于重庆和昆明附近。在构建了一个铁路线平行于河流从武汉到重庆20世纪70年代。
 
The Yangtze is also associated with tourism, both national and international. Guided boat tours through the scenic Three Gorges have developed into a thriving tourism industry. The many historical, religious, and mythological sites along the Yangtze attract many Chinese visitors. Large cities on the river, especially Shanghai, offer tourist attractions as well.
 
长江也为国内和国际的旅游事业做过贡献。通过三峡景区导游陪同游览船已经发展成为一个蓬勃发展的旅游业。在许多历史,宗教,神话和沿长江的网站吸引众多中国游客。河上的大城市,尤其是上海,提供了许多旅游景点。
 
 Yangtze River Cruise tour  长江游船旅游
C Three Gorges Dam  三峡大坝
 
A number of dams and canal networks meet the high regional demand for irrigation and electricity. Thousands of dams are located in the Yangtze Basin, but only two of them—the Three Gorges Dam and Gezhou Dam—are on the Yangtze itself. The Three Gorges Dam is at Sanduping, near Yichang. When completed, the dam will measure more than 200 m (600 ft) high and 1.6 km (1 mi) long, making it the largest in the world. The dam is designed to generate about 18,000 megawatts of electricity—more than any other hydroelectric facility in the world—that will be distributed throughout central China. The dam is also designed to control flooding and improve navigation upriver. The dam will create a reservoir 650 km (400 mi) long, from Yichang, through the Three Gorges, and to Chongqing.
 
水坝和运河网络的数量满足灌溉和电力需求高的区域。数以千计的水坝位于长江流域,但其中只有两个三峡大坝和葛洲坝是属于长江本身的。三峡大坝是在宜昌附近。建成后,三峡大坝将超过200米(600英尺)高和1.6公里(1英里)长,使它成为世界上最大的。三峡大坝是为了产生大约1.8万兆瓦的电力,比任何其他的世界将在整个中国中部分布水电设施。三峡大坝也是为了控制上游洪水,提高航行。该水库大坝将建立一个650公里(400英里)长由宜昌通过三峡,并到重庆。
 
The government of the People’s Republic of China has characterized the Three Gorges Dam as a source of national pride and a necessary project to provide the growing population of the region with electricity, irrigation water, and flood control. However, the massive project has drawn much criticism, both nationally and internationally.
 
中华人民共和国已经将它定性为一种很有必要的项目并享有高度的自豪感,来提供给该地区的增长的人口和电力。然而,此项目也在国内和国外的不少批评。
 
Ultimately, the new reservoir will inundate many towns and cities, displacing an estimated 1 million to 2 million people. A number of archaeological sites along the river will be submerged. Tourism associated with the Three Gorges as a physical and cultural attraction may come to an end.
 
最终,新的水库将淹没许多城镇和城市,大约100万至200万人需要移民。沿着河流的大多数技术地址将被淹没。作为一个旅游相关的物质和文化景点的三峡可能会将结束。
 
Scientists predict the Three Gorges Dam may have many adverse environmental effects. The dam may put stress on the fragile upper slopes of the gorges, leading to their erosion. The reservoir may accumulate sediments and industrial pollutants, and the control on water and sediment may affect the river downstream, leading to increased silting of its mouth and pollution of the delta. A plan to divert water from the Yangtze to water-short northern China may accelerate these problems. In addition, the dam may not entirely solve flooding problems. However, the dam may lessen the dependency on coal for power generation and thereby improve regional air pollution.
 
科学家们预测,三峡大坝可能有许多不利的环境影响。峡大坝可以给峡谷上的山坡产生巨大的压力,导致他们的侵蚀。该水库可积累沉淀物和工业污染物,以及对水和沉积物控制可能影响到下游,从而提高其口和三角洲污染淤积。一个计划从长江水引到缺水的中国北部可能会加速这些问题。此外,三峡大坝可能不会完全解决水浸问题。然而,三峡大坝可能会减少对煤炭发电的依赖,从而改善区内的空气污染。
 
IV HISTORY  历史
The Yangtze has long functioned as a transportation artery, as a strategic boundary, and as the lifeline of a productive agricultural region. Although most of the river has been known for a long time, the Jinsha was first recognized as the headstream in the 16th century. In the 18th century, a Qing government expedition reached the Tibetan Plateau in search of the headwaters. The headwaters were only properly mapped in the 1970s and 1980s. The Three Gorges were charted by Captain Cornell Plant of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Service in the early 20th century.
 
长江在交通运输上起到了重要的作用。作为一个战略边界和农业生产地区的生命线,虽然大部分河流已久众所周知,在16世界,金沙首次确认为源头。在18世纪,清政府在探险队到达西藏高原寻找水源。源头被发现在上世纪70年代和80年代。三峡电厂是由美国康奈尔上尉的中国海关服务在20世纪初开始修建的。
 
The river is intricately associated with benchmark events in Chinese history. Some of these include the warfare between the Three Kingdoms in the 3rd century, the  Taiping Rebellion(1851-1864) that spread along the Grand Canal and the Yangtze, and the Japanese military advance and destruction along the river before and during World War II (1939-1945). In the civil war of the 1940s between Chinese Communists and the Kuomintang (Nationalists), Communist forces under Mao Zedong made many strategic crossings of the river and its tributaries. The Communists drove the Kuomintang from the mainland and formed the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Mao Zedong used the Yangtze to build the cult of himself as a great hero by swimming across it at Wuhan in 1956, 1958, and 1966.
 
这条河在中国的基准事件上被错综复杂的联系在一起,其中包括一些在3世纪中期三国时期的战争。太平天国起义(1851-1864)蔓延到了京杭大运河和长江,日本军队在二战期间破坏了沿河的交通。另一方面,在1940年,中国的国民党和共产党正处于内战时期,国民党压迫毛泽东通过大渡河的指示,中华人民共和国在1949年建立,毛泽东在1956、1958、1966为了让自己成为英雄曾经一度的横渡长江。
 
Numerous references to the Yangtze are found in Chinese mythology and literature. Many sites on the Yangtze are locations of incidents described in the well-known 14th-century novel Sanguozhi yanyi (The Romance of the Three Kingdoms). Chinese poets have written extensively about the beauty of the middle and lower Yangtze and the hazards of the gorges. Mao Zedong wrote a poem in praise of human ability to control the river.
 
在中国的神话和文学中,长江多次被提及到,长江很多网站都在著名的14世纪的小说中描述的事故地点三国志演义(作者:三国演义)。中国诗人写了大量关于中产的美丽和长江中下游和峡谷的危险。毛泽东写了人类对河流的控制能力赞美诗句。
 
 
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