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Chinese architecture tombs

Mausoleum Works of Various Ages 
Tombs of the Warring States can be represented by the Zhongshan Imperial Mausoleum in Pingshan, Hebei Province. It belongs to the middle period of the Warring States era. Although it is an incomplete tomb, from the piece of copper plate unearthed from the tomb carved with the layout of the mausoleum, we still can see the original planning intention. Its restored original shape and structure are encircled by two rings of horizontal rectangular walls. Inside is a horizontal rectangular earth platform, stretching more than 310 meters from east to west, and about five meters high. On the platform are five royal family houses respectively for worshipping the king, two queens and two wives. The three houses in the middle are the houses of the king and two queens, their plane being 52 x 52 (meters) respectively; the two houses on the left and right sides for the wives are smaller and their position retreat somewhat to the back. The five royal houses are three-storied dais structures with a rammed earth platform. Below the house in the middle is a platform some one meter high. The structure is the highest, standing more than 20 meters. The whole group of structures are magnificent, even and symmetrical. The highest imperial hall on the axial line is the construction center; the back hall and the houses for the wives are lower in order, so that the center becomes more prominent and the primary and secondary parts more evident. As mentioned before, the introverted layout of a courtyard type is mostly used for a complex of Chinese buildings. There are, however, also structures with a strong extroverted character Although the Zhongshan Imperial Mausoleum is encircled by walls, the dais structures within tower above them on all four sides, making the extroverted character very evident. The earth-covered platform raises the height of the complex of buildings, so that the imperial mausoleum can be seen from afar, this being Suited to the environment of open field, and giving it a strong memorial character. This represents a fine artistic design that combines structure with environment.

The Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Lintong, Shanxi, is the largest mausoleum of the Qin and Han dynasties. The earth mound is square, each side measuring about 350 meters, and resembling the Egyptian pyramids in the form of a three-layer square pyramid platform ail piled up manually. The existing remnant is still 43 meters high. The top is vast, flat and smooth, and royal halls were possibly once built on it. There are two layers of mausoleum walls around it, with doors opening on all four sides. The north door is possibly taken as the front gate. The southern part of the mausoleum rests on Lishan Mountain and its north faces the Weihe River The terrain is high in the south and low in the north, with the north door taken as the front gate, so that the Lishan Mountain becomes the natural background of the mausoleum.

The Western Han Tomb is also in Shanxi. Its shape and structure are about the same as the Shihuang Mausoleum, both being in a sharp point and flat top, with a square cone-shaped earth mound. There is also a royal hall on the flat top. But the earth mound is much smaller than that of the Shihuang Mausoleum. The mausoleum walls on four sides are mostly of only one layer, with doors opening to four sides.
Among the Northern and Southern Dynasty tombs, the latter concentrated in areas near Nanjing are more famous. Their most distinguishing feature is the fact that there are symmetrical stone carvings on both sides of the broad way in front of the tombs. The common arrangement is that the foremost is a pair of stone beasts facing each other; second is a pair of forward-facing stone pillars; finally, there is the stone tablet erected on the seat of a pair of turtles facing each other.

The stone beast, in the form of lion with wings, robust and vigorous, is exquisitely carved. It is about 3 meters long and 2.5-3 meters high, well-build and stout. It takes step and sticks out its chest in the way of going forward; it opens its mouth and hangs out its tongue; altogether, it looks powerful and graceful.

The stone pillar is also called the tomb tablet. The front side of the pillar is connected horizontally to a transverse long slabstone carved with characters. on the disc at the top of the pillar is the statue of a small squatting stone beast facing the same direction as the slabstone. The pillar ranges in height from 6-7 meters. It is strong, pretty, simple and exquisite, beautiful and light in style. Against a backcloth of blue sky and green trees, it appears especially bright, clean and sacred. 

The Tang Dynasty witnessed the second climax in the construction of mausoleums in China, following Qin and Han dynasties. There are 18 mausoleums on the northern bank of the Weishui River in Shanxi Province.

A scared avenue flanked by pairs of giant stone statues of animal and human leading to the imperial mausoleums, Qianling in Xi'an

Tang Dynasty imperial mausoleums are mostly built at the foot of mountains. Tombs were set up in the rocks on naturally isolated mountains, and their great momentum Surpassed manually earth-sealed graves. Take Qianling, where Emperor Gaozong is buried' together with Wuzetian, for example. Qianling is about 70 meters above the path leading to tombs before the mausoleum, and so is much more magnificent than Qin and Han dynasty grave mounds which generally are only 20-30 meters above the path. The various tombs take Beishan Mountain as the background, with their south face pointing across the vast central Shanxi plain. These tombs, and the distant Zhongnan and Taibai mountains, face one another. The Weishui River lies horizontally before them, and the Jingshui River meanders between them. In the vicinity are shallow ditches and deep gullies. Looking ahead, one finds a stretch of flat land, which serves as a foil to the height and prominence of the main peak of the mausoleum mountain. Tang Dynasty tombs inherited and even developed the tradition of Han Dynasty tombs, with doors on four sides, forming a magnificent picture of the superficial characteristics of an imperial residence. Square walls were built around the mausoleum hills, called the inner city. In the middle of the four sides are doors, with an arched gateway. In the four corners are watchtowers. Within the Zhuque (rose finch) Gate, which is the south gate, is a worship hall where grand worship ceremonies were held. Outside the Zhuque Gate is a 3-4 km-long path leading to the tombs, At the southernmost end is a pair of earthen watchtowers, behind which is a door, from which one goes northward to reach the second pair of earthen water towers and the second door, several hundred meters from the Zhuque Door. From there, one goes further to the third pair of earthen water towers in front of the Zhuque Door. In the vast area between the first and second layer of doors are scattered numerous Subordinated tombs. The greatest number of these, 167, are in the Zhaoling Mausoleum of Emperor Taizong. Zhaoling Mausoleum and Zhenling Mausoleum of Emperor Xuanzong have a circumference of 60 km. The scope of the entire mausoleum area is very great, Surpassing the walled city of Chang'an. Second comes the Qianling Mausoleum, with a circumference of 40 km, equivalent to Chang'an. And then come various tombs with circumferences ranging from 10-30 km. Among the various tombs, the Qianling Mausoleum is best preserved. The stone carvings of Tang dynasty tombs is splendid. Arranged on both sides of the path leading to the tombs are stone carvings, Such as stone pillars, winged horses, ostriches, stone horses and persons leading horses, as well as stone figures. In addition, in the Qianling Mausoleum between the stone figures and the third watchtower, there are a characterless tablet and a recorded tablet narrating the history of a sage. Between the third water tower and the stone lion in front of the north Zhuque Gate on the left and right sides, there are a total of 61 statues of guests of the king. The east, west and north gates in the inner city are like the south gate, with a pair of stone lions and a pair of earthen watch towers. outside the earthen watchtowers at the north gate are added three pairs of horses, called "six dragons", indicating they are the inner stables of the imperial palace. pine, cypress, Chinese scholar tree and poplar are widely planted in side the mausoleum district, setting off the stone carving which, undoubtedly has enriched the content of the mausoleum district and expanded the control space of the mausoleum district, contrasting the height and grandeur of the mausoleum hill, and playing a great role in playing up the atmosphere of dignity and nobility. 

It can be seen that this mausoleum system is identical with the planning idea of the city of Chang'an. The entire mausoleum area is equivalent to the walled city; the Subordinated tombs are in the suburbs' the area stretching northward from the second door is equivalent to the imperial city; the stone figures and stone lions symbolize the guards of honor posted when the emperor goes out; the "inner city" inside the Zhuque gate is equivalent to the palatial city. The design of the mausoleum, like the design of the capital city, is permeated with strict ritual system logic, both designed to give prominence to the dignity of imperial power.

Northern Song Dynasty tombs are concentrated in Henan's Gongxian County, totaling eight in number. Their layout is similar to Tang Dynasty tombs, but they are not erected at the foot of mountains and are smaller in size.

Ming Dynasty tombs are located in two places. one is at the southern foot of Zhongshan Mountain in Nanjing, and is called Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum of Zhu Yuanzhang. The other is at the foot of Tianshou Mountain in north Changping, Beijing, where 13 emperors after Zhu Di are buried, and called the Ming Tombs.

Imperial mausoleum architecture

Imperial mausoleum architecture accounts for a major part in ancient Chinese architecture since they usually stand for the highest architectural techniques of the time. Emperors would often force thousands of the nation's best architects to build these structures. They would withdraw millions, even billions from the exchequer to fund their tombs. These tombs were always magnificently deluxe and consisted of finest structures of the period. In vicissitude of the history, imperial mausoleums scattered around places which used to be capitals of different dynasties. These mausoleums were usually built against hills or mountains and facing plains. Most imperial mausoleums have broad ways called Shendao (the Sacred Way) at the entrance. Along both sides of the Shendao, there are stone sculptures of men and animals which guard the tombs. Other imperial structures were also built beside the tomb. Under huge hills of clay, splendid and superior structures were constructed with fine facilities such as drainage systems.

Imperial palace

Wenshou (a legendary auspicious animal) - a unique ornament on the ridge of a house symbolizes the social hierarchy, Forbidden City.

During the long Chinese history, emperors of different dynasties kept building palaces. Since palaces are where emperors lived and practiced their reign, palaces of different dynasties integrates essences of Chinese architecture. The famous palace complex, Epanggong built by and for Qin Shi Huang Emperor. Can you imagine that its Front Palace, built more than 2,000 years ago, covered 80,000 square meters and could hold 10,000 people? The Weiyanggong of the Western Han Dynasty had more than 40 palaces within a periphery of 11 kilometers. The Forbidden City, also called the Imperial Palace, which was set up under the reign of the Ming dynasty and still stands intact, covers an area of 720,000 square meters and consists of more than 9900 palaces and other structures. It is the grandest and biggest palace in the world.

Popular Chinese culture encompasses a number of non-religious belief systems. The blending of various religious deities and non-religious spirits gave rise to the Chinese people`s characteristically pragmatic religious beliefs.

Popular Chinese beliefs were greatly influenced by hierarchical Confucian ideology. giving rise to the veneration of ``Heaven. Earth. Rulers. Ancestors. and Masters.``


Temple of Heaven. Beijing


Chinese folk beliefs are based in a large part on the worship of various aspects of Nature. particularly the heaven. earth. sun. and moon. The Temple of Heaven is a sacred complex in Beijing where the emperor made sacrifices to heaven. Its outer wall is round. symbolizing heaven. and the inner wall is square. symbolizing earth. This embodies the ancient Chinese cosmological principle that heaven (the natural world) is round and earth (human experience and concepts of order) is square.


Bixia Yuanjun Temple. Mount Tai

Veneration of Earth was expressed by offering sacrifices to mountains and rivers. Among the main

Bixia Yuanjun Temple. Mount Tai

centers of worship were the temples of the Five Great Mountains. including Mount Tai. and the temples of the Four Great Rivers. including the Yellow River and the Changjiang River. After the 10th century. temples to local Earth deities also spread throughout the country.


Xuanyuan Temple. Shaanxi Province

The Chinese people have always venerated the rulers of past dynasties. especially those who made major contributions to humanity. Xuanyuan Temple in Shaanxi Province commemorates the most famous of these rulers. the Yellow Emperor.. who is said to have who lived between 3000 and 2070 BC. and who the Chinese worshipped as the First Ancestor of the Chinese nation. The In fact. Chinese people still refer to themselves as the ``descendents of the Yellow Emperor and the Yan Emperor.


Taimiao Imperial Temple. Forbidden City. Beijing

Ancestor worship was by far the most influential folk belief of ancient China. Sacrifices to the ancestors were made throughout society. from the Taimiao Imperial Temple in the Forbidden City to the ancestral halls of the common people. Ancestral halls often were where clan elders exercised their authority. With the exception of the Qingyitang Hall of Female Ancestors in Huizhou. almost all ancestral temples in China were dedicated to male forebears. reflecting feudal China`s patriarchal and patrilineal code.


The ancient Chinese people believed in the indestructibility of the soul. and often deified people of outstanding merit after their deaths.

Confucius was worshipped as the spiritual master of the intellectuals of ancient China. Next to every school was a temple dedicated to the Master. These Confucius Temples. also called Temples of Culture. served as spiritual centers for two millennia of Chinese scholars. The common people also had temples dedicated to Confucius. known as Scholar Temples.

Guandi Temple. Xiezhou. Shanxi Province

Guan Yu. who lived from 169 to 219. was a great military commander of the late Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD). Because of his valor and loyalty. he was deified by later generations as the God of War. In ancient China. Guandi temples dedicated to Guan Yu were even more common than Confucius temples. Interestingly enough. due to Guan Yu`s honesty. integrity. and lack of greed. he was also worshipped as the guardian of commerce.

The Tomb of the First Qin Emperor

Terra Cotta Warriors. Pit 1

The ancient Chinese people believed that the soul is immortal. and that after death. people continue to live in a fashion very similar to life on earth. The burial chamber was thought to be the location of this ``life after death.`` This conception gave rise to the Chinese tradition of lavish interments. The tombs of emperors. in particular. were constructed as complete underground worlds. filled with an extensive and luxurious selection of items for use by the deceased.

The tomb of Qinshi Huangdi. the First Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) Emperor who unified China in 221 BC. is the most famous example. This massive underground city covers a total area of 56.25 square kilometers. To date. only a fraction of it has been excavated. The pits containing the famous army of terra cotta warriors and horses represent merely a small corner of the entire complex.

Ming Tombs

The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) Tombs are the most complete and best-preserved imperial tomb complex in the world. consisting of temples as well as mausoleums. The aboveground section includes large palaces that were used for sacrificial rituals. The Ming Tombs were laid out and constructed based on the doctrines of traditional Chinese fengshui. or geomancy. Every element of the complex is in complete harmony with the surrounding mountains. rivers. and vegetation. embodying the philosophical principle of the Unity of Heaven and Humanity.

Under the Ming tomb system, grave mounds are changed into round earth mounds, called "baoding" or tee. The front axis of the tee is a series of courtyards which emphasizes the in-depth composition of the axis. Such a design, which is more compact, is a good concept. on both sides of the path leading to the Ming tombs are many stone carvings, called Shixiangsheng.

What is more noteworthy is that the method of group layout of the Ming Tombs is a great creation. Prior to this, the various tombs were built independently, unrelated to each other. The Ming Tombs adopt the method of construction placing the Changing Tomb of Emperor ChengZu at the center. Various other tombs formed an arc shape and jointly used the Shinto (path leading to tombs), not only reducing manual work, but also increasing the momentum of the tomb area. 

The Tianshou Mountain where the Ming Tombs are located is within Changping County, 45 km to the north of Beijing. The winding mountain ridges linked to each other create a horseshoe shape opening to the south. At the northernmost center of the horseshoe, the Chengzu Changling Tomb is built at the foot of the mountain. At the opening of the horseshoe, six km south of Changling Tomb, there are two east and west sm8ll isolated hills opposite to each other. The Dahongmen, built between them, is taken as the starting-point of the entire mausoleum area. This method of using natural terrain reminds people of the fine tradition that ancient Chinese cities and other large structures pay close attention to integration with the macro-environment. Apart from the Changling Tomb, another 12 tombs are scattered along the two sides of the horseshoe facing the path leading to public tombs.

The three courtyards in the front and at the back of the Changling Tomb are of the same width, and are encircled by high walls. Inside the tomb gate, the first courtyard is very shallow, the second square, vertical and long. The entrance is the Lingen Gate. On the first line of the middle pillar, three doors are open on the single-layer stone platform encircled by white stone balustrades very much like Taihemen Gate in the Forbidden City. The Lingen Hall, the key structure in the second courtyard, is at the rear. Its shape and structure are the same as the Taihe Hall. The frontal width of Lingen Hall is slightly bigger than that of Taihe hail, but the former's depth is shallower It is the second largest hall existing in China. Under the hall, there are three layers of stone platforms encircled by stone balustrades. The 32 large pillars inside the hall are all made with super-quality gold filigreed nanmu timber.The largest four pillars are each 1.17 meters in diameter and 12 meters high. The various pillars show the true color of the xylon: deep, elegant and solemn. originally there were wing-halls on the left and right at front of the hall, but they have long since disappeared. The third courtyard door to the north of the hall is called Neihong Door. on the axis inside the courtyard is a single archway, called Erzhu Gate. There is a stone table in the north of the archway on which are placed five worshipping utensils including a stone incense bummer. The last structure, looking like a tower, is called square city and open tower. From the Shijuan Cave below the square city platform, one can climb to the top of the platform on which the open tower is built. Inside the open tower a cross juandong is laid, and a big monument is erected which serves as a stone-tablet pavilion. Behind the tower is a tee about 250 meters in diameter.

Although there are not many structures in this area, arrangements are very rich. It consists of two connected upsurges - the Lingen Hall and the Fangcheng open tower. The former is a wooden structure, horizontal and lengthy; the latter is a brick-stone structure, vertical and elongated in the form of tower, presenting a sharp contrast to the former. The interior and exterior of the courtyard, and the tee, are planted with pine and cypress trees, which have a strong commemorative character The overall layout is simple and terse, not very noisy, constituting an important factor of commemoration.

The whole Ming Tombs area shared one Shinto (path leading to tombs). Later, an additional grand stone archway was built about 130Ometers outside Dahongmen Gate, moving the starting-point o the mausoleum area ahead. The stone archway consists of six pillars and five houses, rich in outline and, with a width of ao meters, it is China's largest archway. The huge pillars stand majestically upright in the open countryside, making it look very magnificent.

Dahongmen Gate consists of a juandong cave. Although the stone-tablet pavilion inside the gate is named a pavilion, its size is huge. Each side is 26 meters long' and 22 meter high. A huge monument is erected in the pavilion, with a marble pillar on each of the four corners outside the pavilion to enrich the appearance and set off the grandeur of the stone-tablet pavilion, and enlarge the controlled scope over a vast space .On the north of the pavilion, the stone-laid Shinto is 1,200 meters long. A total of 19 pairs of stone pillars, stone beasts and stone figures are arranged on the two opposite sides. At the northern end of the Shinto are three parallel stone gates with a low wall between them.There are no more installations in a distance of more than four km from north of here to the Changling Tomb, making it seem like a blank picture, there placement of solid with void making this more implicit.

The route of the leading part of the whole is arranged in light of the geographical situation, basically bearing southwest-northeast with as light turn. Taking the main peak of Tianshou Mountain on the right eastern side of the Changling Tomb as the background, the route deviates slightly to the horseshoe-shaped eastern side. This is because the mountain ridges on the eastern side are relatively low, so the deviation helps gain the feeling through the perspective effect that the east and west are approximately balanced. It is a successful artistic treatment of the environment, which should be the decision made by the planner after making an on-the-spot survey.

After the Manchu people entered Shanhaiguan, there were two groups of tombs in Hebei's Zunhua and Yixian counties, because they lived separately in the east and west of Beijing, hence the name of East Mausoleum and West Mausoleum. Whether in terms of the site selectionprinciple or concrete layout, they are similar to, but developed somewhat differently from, the Ming Tombs.

The East Mausoleum rests on Changrui Mountain in the north, and faces the jinxing Mountain in the south, with mountain ridges on both the eastern and western sides. In the distance, to the south of jinxing Mountain, Yandun and Tiantai mountains stand opposite each other. Longmen Pass, naturally formed between the two mountains. Changrui Mountain, a branch of Yanshan Mountain, winds its way up and down, its ridges and hills beautiful, majestic and grand. In various resting places of the Eastern Mausoleum, tombs are erected beside a hill at the southern foot of Changrui Mountain according to the terrain. Behind each resting place, there is a mountain peak. Looking southward from the resting place, one sees the sunshine over the expansive open fields, the level land looking like a blanket. Looking north, one finds hills rising one upon another with boundless greenery. The entire mausoleum area looks like a beautiful landscape scroll and the scenery is peaceful and charming.

The East Mausoleum consists of 14 tombs of emperors and queens, centered on Xiaoling Mausoleum during the reign of Emperor Shizu of the Qing Dynasty. There is a grand axis stretching six km from Jinxing Mountain at the southern end to the underground palace tee of Xiaoling Mausoleum on the north. Ranged from south to north, its entirecomposition alignment is: Jinxing Mountain (Chaoshan Mountain)-Stone Archway- Dahongmen -Dabeilou-Yingbi (Screen Wall)Mountain-Shixiangsheng-Longfengmen (Dragon and Phoenix Gate)-Qikong Qiao(Seven-Arch Bridge)-Sanlu Sankong Qiao (Three--LaneThree--Arch Bridge)-Xiao Bei Ting (Small Stone--Tablet Tower)-LongEn Men-Long En Dian-Liu Li Hua Men-Er Zhu Men-Wu Gong Tai-Fangcheng Minglou, finally reaching the Digong Tee. Further south starts from the far-off Longmenkou, and further north the main peak of Changrui Mountain is taken as the back screen. The axis is basically straight, only there is a natural small hill between Dabeilou and Shixiangsheng. The Shinto winds its way for half a circle around its western side, but the small hill becomes a screen in front of the mausoleum, resembling a screen wall before the complex of buildings, hence the name "Screen Wall Hill". The size of Dabeilou is greater than that of the Ming Tombs at nearly ao meters high. The arrangement of the rear section of the axis is also similar to that of the Ming dynasty Changling Mausoleum, only the gate of Changling is canceled, and Xiaobei Pavilion is reconstructed there. Longenmen Gate is taken as the main gate. There are the east and west Chaofang and Zhifang rooms on both sides of the Shinto in front of Longenmen Gate. Dozens of colorful and varied buildings of different shapes and structures are properly distributed along such a long axis, and they are grand in appearance and rich in layers.

There is one more difference between the East Mausoleum and the Ming Tombs, i.e.,besides the fact that the Shinto of the largest Xiaoling Mausoleum carries the nature of a public Shinto, Yuling, jingling and Dingling mausoleums each have their own Shintos.
 The West Mausoleum, consisting of 1o tombs, also rests on mountains in the north. The south side is flat and wide. The various tombs are centered on Qinling Mausoleum. The Shinto of Qinling and the Shinto of Xiaoling Tomb in the East Mausoleum are approximately the same.

The pursuit of happiness

Longevity Hill. Summer Palace. Beijing

The human desire for good fortune and longevity finds many reflections in Chinese architecture.

Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) Emperor Qian Long built the Summer Palace in Beijing in honor of his mother`s birthday. The Chinese words for ``bat`` and ``good fortune`` are homonyms. so the mountain at the Summer Palace is constructed in the shape of a bat. Peaches are a metaphor for longevity. so the lake is shaped like a peach. Together. the mountain and lake convey wishes for good fortune and longevity.

Auspicious decoration. Prince Gong`s Residence. Beijing

The phrases ``many seeds`` and ``many sons`` are homonyms in Chinese. Pomegranates and gourds. both of which have many seeds. are therefore often used as decorations in Chinese architecture. reflecting the traditional Chinese desire for many sons. Bats. peaches. and pomegranates or gourds often appear together. graphically expressing the wish for ``good fortune. longevity. and many sons.`` These images represent the fusion of Chinese culture and the pursuit of happiness.

Dragon totems

The dragon was the totem of the ancient Chinese people. The Chinese dragon is an imaginary creature with the head of a horse. the eyes of a shrimp. the neck of a tortoise. the horns of a stag. the paws of a tiger. the claws of an eagle. and the tail of a goldfish. The dragon represents the combination of the totems and symbols of China`s various ancient tribes. following their unification into the early Chinese people.

Nine Dragon Wall


 Dragon and phoenix are totems of Chinese people and were the main decorative patterns to be seen on various imperial structures.

Nine carried a special meaning in ancient China when it was deemed that odd numbers represent Yang while even numbers Yin. Since nine is the largest odd number under ten, it was regarded the extremely lucky number. So, emperors liked to monopolize it to symbolize their superiority. Designs related with nine appeared almost on every imperial structure such as palace. For example, on gates of the Forbidden City, there are 81 gold-plating bronze studs which were arranged in nine columns and nine rows. Ancient palaces usually were designed to be nine-section architectural complex. Based on the same reason, number or size concerning imperial architecture often equals or multiples nine

ous forms of dragons also appear throughout Chinese architecture. According to one legend. ``One dragon gives birth to nine offspring. but the offspring do not resemble dragons.`` The small creatures often depicted on palace doors. incense burners. and roof eaves and peaks represent the nine offspring of the dragon`s family.

Dragon and Phoenix

Dragon and phoenix, called Long and Feng in Chinese respectively, are totems of Chinese people. They were used to represent emperors and their consorts and were the main decorative patterns to be seen on various imperial structures. Palaces, columns, pathways and screen walls were all inscribed or carved or painted with their images.

Chinese minority nationalities often have tombs for emperors or the respected, besides tombs for Islamic sages of Uygur Nationality to be referred to later in the section on the architectural arts of minority nationalities. There are, for instance, the Tibetan King's Tomb, and the Western Xia imperial mausoleum.The former was created in Tibet around the seventh century with a very large mound. The latter is in NingXia, built in the 11th or 12th century, and inside the square walls there are tower-shaped structures, which are not very big.