Famous Chinese Gardens
Chinese gardens and parks are world famous for their long history and their architectural styles. What we now know as the Chinese park first appeared 3,000 years ago, as a style of garden called you, where people bred animals and hunted. In the Qin (221-207 B.C) and Han (206 B.C-A.D.220) dynasties, they gradually developed into imperial parks and hunting grounds for. Landscape gardens imitating nature and pursuing poetic effects appeared during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period (420-581), and developed during the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). These gardens reached their zenith both in scale and architectural excellence in the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911). Most of the ancient gardens and parks remaining today are masterpieces from the period.
Classical Chinese gardens and parks combine classical Chinese architecture with painting, calligraphy, poems, carving and horticulture, while offering living places and practical functions. They feature a natural landscape in order to give the onlooker a feeling of perfect harmony between man-made and natural beauty.
Chinese gardens generally consist of halls, towers, pavilions, kiosks, terraces, waterside gazebos, covered corridors, hills, and ponds or lakes. A variety of garden-building techniques, accumulated by ancient Chinese designers, have made the scenery of the gardens look changeable, thus adding artistic appeal to the gardens.
The most famous imperial park in China, the Summer Palace, lies 15 kilometres northwest of Beijing. Featuring Longevity Hill and Kuming Lake, the garden inherits the architectural traditions of past ages and adopts strong points of garden-building techniques from all parts of China. With the imposing manner of the North and the elegant taste of the South, the magnificence of the imperial palace and the delicacy of residential houses, the Summer Palace is known as a jewel of Chinese landscape architecture.
Classical Chinese gardens and parks are classified into two groups: imperial and private. The imperial parks are built in a grand and spectacular style and are located mostly in north China, such as the Summer Palace in Beijing and Chengde Mountain Resort in Hebei Province. Some are joined to the imperial palace, such as Beihai Park and Zhongnanhai in Beijing.
Zhongnanhai is the southern part of a chain of lakes and a garden-palace complex. There are a number of access gates in the vermilion walls that surround the huge rectangular precinct, with the main entrance on Changan Avenue west of Tiananmen Square. Beyond the wall is a vast expanse of water, known as the South Sea.Since the founding of the People's Republic in 1949, Zhongnanhai has been home to the highest ranking members of the Communist Party including Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and Liu Shaoqi. Offices of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the State Council, the Central People's Government and the Military Commission of the Party Central Committee are located here.
Located in north of Chengde, Mountain Resort is the largest existed classical royal garden in China. The garden was constructed in 1703 and finished 89 years later. Covering 5,640,000 square meters, the garden is twice as large as the Summer Palace, eight times as large as Beihai Park. The garden is not only large in scale, but also makes the best use of the existed natural beauty to arrange and design the man-made project. Mountain Resort is highly praised as the best model of Chinese classical gardens because it assimilated the tradition of the past dynasties and experience of gardens in South Yangtze River as to reach a unprecedented level of gardening.
The Chengde Mountain Resort has two sections: the palace area and the scenic area, which is further divided into lake, plain, and hilly areas. The lake area occupies 58 hectares, half of which is covered by water. The islets, bridges and dams divide the water into several lakes of varied shapes and sizes. Featuring hot springs, cascades, and brooks, the lake area was a favourite of the Qing emperors and their families. Here, many of the scenic attractions was built after the model of southern gardens, and were built at the order of Emperor Qian Long (reigned 1737-1795) after he had toured the South several times.
- West Garden, Nanjing, Capital of Jiangsu Province
It’s hardly talked about the history of ancient Chinese gardens without mentioning Yuanmingyuan, known worldwide as “the garden of gardens.” Once as a large complex of imperial gardens, Yuanmingyuan covers an area of 347 hectares with a circumference of 10 kilometres. Construction of the complex began in the early 1700s and continued under succeeding Qing emperors. During the height of its popularity, this complex boasted 140 traditional palace halls, pavilion, kiosks, terraces, and waterside gazebos in addition to a number of European-style palace buildings. Around its man-made hills and lakes were 100 scenic spots composed of various rare rocks, flowers and plants from all over the land, and imitations of the best scenic sites of famous gardens in south China. It also had a large collection of precious cultural relics, art treasures and curios, rare books, painting, and calligraphy scroll. But this splendid garden was burnt to ruins after being robbed of its treasure by the British-French allied forces in 1860. Today, all that remains are a few stone ruins.
Li Garden, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province
The largest imperial park still existing in China is the Chengde Mountain Resort, formerly named Rehe Imperial Touring Lodge. Located in Chengde, Hebei Province, it covers 564 hectares, twice the area of the Summer Palace, and is surrounded by mountain, and dotted with lakes. With a fairly high elevation, the park is cool in summer, and Qing Dynasty emperors frequently went there to escape the heat of the Beijing summer and conducted with government affairs amid the pleasant breezes.
Most of China’s best-known private gardens are found in cities south of the Changjiang (Yangtze)
In order to represent the natural surrounding, rockery is very important in building gardens. Liangji in the Eastern Han Dynasty made two artificial mountains by imitation Yin Gorge and Luo Gorge, which is the start of? life-based gardening.
Famous Private Gardens in Suzhou
Suzhou is a Chinese city renowned for its long history, beautiful natural views and classical gardens. The classical gardens in Suzhou are nominated as one of the Top Ten National Landscapes in China. In December 1997, it was registered in the World Cultural Heritage list by UNESCO World Heritage Committee. Famous for their exquisite and free styles as well as elegance, the gardens in Suzhou directly reflect the history and development of Chinese private gardens. They all have distinct artistic patterns in arrangement and structure. Zhuozheng Garden, Liu Garden, Huanxiu Villa and Wangshi Garden are most typical among them. These gardens represent the brilliant architecture and residential civilization in ancient China and are considered to be priceless treasure of Chinese traditional culture.
River. Besides Suzhou, where many well-known gardens are located, Yangzhou, Nanjing, Wuxi, and Shanghai all have a number of famous gardens of their own. Located in urban areas and adjacent to residential houses, the gardens are generally small, with exquisite hills, lakes, streams, plants, tree, pavilions, terraces, covered passages, and bridges. Their outstanding feature is their design, which makes the scenery in the garden appear to change with every step. These gardens are known for their delicacy and their ability to make the small appear large.
Also called Fisherman's Garden, this is the smallest garden yet supposed to be the most delicate one in the city. The 0.6-hectare garden is an elegant structure of a typical official's residence in the Qing Dynasty.
One of the four renowned gardens in Suzhou, Liuyuan, or Lingering Garden, was first built in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and was rebuilt by a Qing official. Its Taihu Lake rocks boost its reputation both at home and abroad.
Yangzhou is a communication center connecting north and south in China. The gardens in Yangzhou are also famous for the combination of the northern gardens' grandness and southern gardens' elegance. In the period of its great prosperity, there is a saying that "The beauty of gardens in Yangzhou is best in the world."
Ge Garden: Ge garden is famous for the exquisitely placed rockeries. Different rocks are used in presenting the different scenery in the four seasons. So it is calls Four Seasons Rockeries. The stalagmites are inserted in the bamboo forest to indicate spring. The lake stones by lotus pool are laid to materialize summer. When climbing up the Huangshi Rockery sitting east and facing west, you can feel the autumn view. The snow rocks are used to indicate winter. Walking around the garden, tourists will have a wonderful feeling of experiencing one year.