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Xian History  西安历史

Xian Facts       Xi'an  Overview              Chinese History

It is no exaggeration that Xian is the first choice if you are willing to find the longest history of China. This region is one of the vital birthplaces of the profound Chinese civilization. Benefiting from the fertile land and comfortable climate in ancient time, the rulers of 13 dynasties have set up their capitals in Xian successively. Thus, Xian is one of the cities which preserve a wealth of historical heritages in China.

毫不夸张地说如果你想看中国最古老的历史,西安一定是您的上选。这里是最悠久的中国文明的发源地之一。这里有土地富饶,气候宜人,是中国十三朝古都。西安也是中国拥有历史文物最多的城市之一。

Prehistory史前时期
The Lantian Man, which was found in Lantian County of Xian, has inhabited in this land about 800,000 years ago. The founded skulls fossils is said to be the earliest and best preserved ones in China until now. Coming to 300,000-400,000 years ago, the primitive people around Xian have turned into the stage of primitive clan communes gradually. The base of this region's agricultural production should be started when the Banpo Man made living here about 6,000 years ago. They have settled down in the eastern suburban of Xian City, setting up the Matriarchal clan villages.蓝田人,发现于西安市蓝田县,大约存在于800,000年以前。发现的头盖骨化石也被认为是我国目前最早,保存最完好的头骨化石。大约在300,000至400,000年以前。
西安周围的原始人开始逐渐进入原始氏族公社时期。6000年前,半坡人在这里开始生活的时候就有了原始农业生产基地。他们在西安东郊定居下来,这就是母系氏族公社。
In the Slave Society奴隶社会

The slave society of China mainly refers to the periods of the Xia (21st-16th century BC), Shang (16th-11th century BC), Western Zhou (11th century BC-771BC) as well as Spring and Autumn Peroid (770 BC-476). During this long history, more and more nations have immigrated to the Guanzhong Plain the center of which is just current Xian. Therefore, both of this region's economy and political system has gained rapid development. Until to the Western Zhou Dynasty, the Wenwang have moved the capital-Fengjing to the west bank of the Fenghe River nearby Xian. It played as the dynasty's religious and cultural center. Later, his heir Wuwang built the political center on the east bank of the Fenghe River, namely, Haojing. This should be the first recorded dynasty founded the capital in Xian City.中国过的奴隶制社会从夏朝开始,经历商,西周和春秋战国时期。在这一段历史时期内,越来越多的王朝在现在的西安也就是当时的关中平原建立了政权。同时,这一时期的经济和政治体系都得到了快速发展。直到西周,才将都城——沣京迁到西安附近的沣河西岸。后来,武王在沣河东岸建立了政治中心,名为镐京。这应该是西安有记录以来的第一个都城了。


In the Warring State Period (476BC-221BC) and the Qin Dynasty (221 BC-206 BC)战国时期和秦朝时期

Coming to the end of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, namely, the Warring States Period, there mainly distributed seven powerful states in China. Qin, one of the seven states, was located in the center of Shaanxi Province and east Gansu Province. Later, Ying Zheng, Emperor Qin Shi Huang, set up the first feudal dynasty in Xianyang (consists of current Xian and Xianyang cites) after unifying the other six states. Although this dynasty fallen soon, a great number of historical relics were left, for example, the so famous Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses. Until now, some traditions and cuisines from the Qin Dynasty are still kept by the Xian locals.东周之后,进入战国时期,中国被分为七个诸侯国。秦是战国七雄之一,位于陕西中部和甘肃省东部。后来,赢政,也就是秦始皇,在咸阳建立了第一个封建王朝,收复了其他的六个诸侯国。尽管秦朝很快衰落,但这一时期留下很多文物古迹,例如,著名的秦始皇兵马俑。直到现在,秦朝的许多民俗和餐饮都被当地人民保留下来。



In the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220)汉朝

The Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-24AD), which is the third dynasty setting up its capital in Xian, constructed its capital -Chang'an on the relics of the Qin's Xianyang. Once, Chang'an City was the largest one in the world, covering an area of about 36 square kilometers (13.9 square miles). Now, the site of the Weiyang Palace is preserved well in Xian. The famous 'Silk Road' which starts from the Chang'an City appeared during the period of Wudi, opening the communication between China and overseas countries. On the other hand, the emperors carried out a series of policies to help the rehabilitation of the people. The Chang'an became a thriving city both in economy and polity in the world wide.西汉,是在西安建都的第三个朝代,将它的都城——长安,建立在秦朝都城的旧址之上。长安城是当时世界上最大的城市,占地面积36平方公里。现在,西安的未央宫遗址还保存完好。汉武帝时期,出现了闻名中外的丝绸之路,起点就在长安,开始了中国的对外交流。另一方面,汉武帝也通过一些政策来与民修养。经过这一时期,中国成为世界著名的经济和政治中心。

In the Sui (581-618) and Tang (618-907) Dynasties隋唐时期

At the found of the Sui Dynasty, the Han's Chang'an City has been destroyed seriously owing to long years of wars from 220 to 589. Therefore, the emperor built a new city just to southeast of the old Chang'an City, called Daxing City. After the Tang Dynasty overthrew the Sui and captured the Daxing City, the first emperor of Tang renamed the city as Chang'an City again. Later, some subsequent construct and renovation projects were taken. In the early period of Emperor Taizong, the Daming Palace was constructed, which was the political center of the whole dynasty later. There is no doubt that Tang should be the most prosperous dynasty in Chinese history. Thus, as the center, Chang'an was one of the largest economical, political and cultural centers in the world at that time. Most overseas travelers and businessmen came to Chang'an, enjoying the city's gloss.

On the other hand, the Buddhism also expanded rapidly in Chang'an with the support of the governors. Now, the existing Big Wild Goose Pagoda should be the outstanding representation of the Buddhist building in Xian. Additionally, the prosperous and peaceful city attracts a great number of artist and poets, inspiring them to create so many masterpieces throughout the ages. In fact, the Tang culture has influenced this region deeply, spanning from architectural style to food, even to the city's soul.

隋朝建立时,汉长安城因长年战乱而损坏严重。皇帝命人在原长安城旧址的东南方向修建了一座宫殿,名为大兴城。隋朝灭亡以后,唐朝的第一个皇帝,将都城名又改为长安城。唐太宗早期,修建了大明宫,后来大明宫就是唐朝时期的政治中心了。毫无疑问,唐朝是中国封建社会最繁荣的朝代,因此,作为都城的长安城是当时世界上最大经济政治文化中心。大多数的海外旅游者和商业人士都是因为长安城的繁华而来到此地。

 此外,佛教在长安也因当权政府的支持而发展壮大。现在,大雁塔是西安的佛教类建筑的突出代表。而且繁荣祥和的长安也吸引了大批的文人墨客到此,并留下无数经典作品。事实上,唐文化对后世产生了巨大的影响,从建筑风格到十五甚至是城市精神风貌都有巨大的影响。
In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)明朝

From the end of the Tang Dynasty, the Chang'an City has lost its top position gradually; however, it was still one of the vital prefectures in the later dynasties. In 1369 of the Ming Dynasty, Xian gained its current name officially. From the next year, the current Xian City Wall has been constructed.从唐朝后期开始,长安就逐渐失去了他的重要地位,然而,他在后面的朝代中,依然扮演重要的角色。明朝时期,政府更其名为西安。次年,西安明城墙开始建造。

The Summary of the Modern History现代历史总结

October 22, 1911---the local revolutionists pulled down the governance of the Qing Dynasty in Xian.1911年10月22日,在西安当地的革命者推翻了清政府。
1925---the national army led by Dr. Sun Yat-sun overthrew the reactionary warlord in Xian.
1925年---国民党的领导者孙中山在西安推翻了反动军阀的领导。
1927---some members of the Chinese Communist Party launched a military school in Xian, training a number of revolutionists.
1927年--中共党员在西安组建了革命学校,培养了许多革命者。
mber 12, 1936---Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng captured the Generalissimo Chiang Kai Shek by initiating a military exhortation, namely, the Xian Incident. The incident spurred the Kuomintang to unify the Communist for resisting the Japanese invaders.

May 20, 1949---Xian City was liberated by the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
May 25, 1949—The People's Government of Xian City was launched

1911年10月22日,革命起义将西安的清政府推翻。

1925年,国民军参与西安的反军阀战争

1927年,一些中共成员在西安开办军校,培养革命者。

1936年12月12日,张学良和杨虎城将军发动了震惊世界的西安事变。促使国共合作,一致抗日。

1949年5月20日,西安解放。

1949年5月25日,西安人民政府成立

  Xian Facts       Xi'an  Overview              Chinese History


2012/8/2 22:48:16
Mrs.Briya(uAfCXBicddSTbalQT)said:
 
That insight solves the pbroelm. Thanks!
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